13

Pre-ACKing is only possible because the near accelerator keeps the segment data in queue. Therefore, it can ACK in stead of the far destination, prompting the sender to advance the send window and send out more segments than would be possible by delay-bandwidth alone. Of course, the near accelerator needs to keep track of its internal, larger send window ...


4

It's all depends upon your bandwidth utlization and traffic and number of end users connected on access -layer switch it's . With help of Port channel and link aggrigation you can bind 8 uplinks from distribution to access switch or from core switch to access switch ..


4

It's all depends upon network connectivity bandwidth and server NIC card bandwidth threshold . If excess of traffic come on physical links then packets are queued resulting in congestion of physical links leads to packet drops and applications will experience latency in accessing . Traffic is even get queued when server nic cards exceed its handling ...


3

If the bandwidth limit is a physical link capacity, excess traffic is dropped. A very small amount might get queued and dequeued again when the bandwidth has decreased below the physical limit, but anything seriously exceeding the link capacity cannot be forwarded and is lost. If it's a software limit, the exact handling depends on the configuration and the ...


3

No .. High bandwidth internet connectivity cannot compensate low throughput Server . Tràffic will flow fasters from ISP link and reaches to server but beacuse of traffic congestion at server end traffic packets will be queued at server end resulting packet drops and latency and low performance .. The only solution is to increase throughput at server end ...


3

iperf measures bandwidth. Tools like Ookla Speedtest report download and upload speed. "Speed" is a term that's often misused. All these tools measure throughput -- the amount of data sent in a given amount of time. Speedtest and similar programs measure throughput to their servers -- which may or may not be representative of your application. ...


3

This is the same term used in two different contexts and it has quite different meanings. (it could also have other different meanings in other domains) In the context of radio frequency, yes it is literally a range of frequency. For example WiFi 802.11 (legacy/b/g) use the 2.4 - 2.5 Ghz range and so has a 0.1Ghz bandwidth. In the context of network it ...


3

Your textbook does a poor job of explaining the concept. You might look for other sources. Your example doesn't work well, because the serialization delay is tremendously large (20% of the propagation delay). A more workable example is to assume the bandwidth is 1kbps. Now the serialization delay is negligible. Let's assume the TCP window is 5kb. You ...


2

It all depends on your workloads. If you've got eight "light" users that work with some office documents, surf the 'net, send and receive a few emails, oversubscription is a non-issue. It might not even matter if the users are connected by gigabit or only 100 Mbit/s. You could even have 40 end nodes or more on a single gigabit uplink without any problem. ...


2

The quoted text from your book is wrong on several levels. The two easiest to explain are below. Do not trust information from this resource. It's well-understood that you don't need to wait for a fixed number of in-flight transmissions to be acknowledged before sending additional segments. To use TCP terms, this is why we have a window that grows in the ...


2

In next generation firewall ,we have feasibility to limit bandwidth utilization of specific users with respect to time . Bandwidth can be controlled to maximum extend using this features .


2

There is confusion between the definitions electrical engineers and computer scientists give to bandwidth: for electrical engineers bandwidth is a physical property and limitation of a trasmission channel,and it's measured in Hertz and it's an analog bandwidth. For computer scientists bandwidth is equal to the capacity or maximum data rate of a channel, it's ...


2

In short: The burden falls upon the TCP PEP to recover any data which is dropped after the PEP [locally] acknowledges it see https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3135.html#section-3.1.2 Enhancing TCP Over Satellite Channels using Standard Mechanisms see RFC2488 This is a an RFC indicated as "Best Current Practice". All controls recommended for use ...


1

While bandwidth guarantees can be implemented by policies within forwarding devices (routers, switches), most installations use a priority scheme instead (or in combination with bandwidth control). Bandwidth guarantees use reservations which are not as efficient as prioritizing by packet. For Ethernet (layer 2), IEEE 802.1Q provides priority code points in ...


1

Network engineering simply is not a well defined discipline like other applied sciences. It would be nice if everyone had a technical editor to make sure they were using terms consistently, but we don't. So people sometimes speak (or write) imprecisely. Bottom Line: In most cases, Interface Speed, Bandwidth, Line Rate, and Data Rate all mean the same thing. ...


1

No. A server cannot become faster when you upgrade its link alone (if the link isn't the bottleneck). The possible throughput is the lower value of local throughput and network throughput.


1

Your question is extremely broad, possibly due to some mixup. All forms of ISDN use circuit switching, so channel resources are allocated for the entire duration of a connection. The various ISDN flavors use different kinds of B-channel signaling protocols, like DSS1 or Q.931. A virtual circuit is (more or less) an emulation of a circuit-switching network ...


1

I am confused about the meaning of the term 'Bandwidth' in a wireless transmission environment. The two are more closely related than you might think. The two most common definitions I could find are: difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies This isn't quite right. A better definition is "a ...


1

The sender should send a burst of data of (2 × bandwidth × delay) bits. The sender then waits for receiver acknowledgment for part of the burst before sending another burst. Look at these last two sentences. The key to understanding what the author meant, about "(2 × bandwidth × delay) bits", is in the last sentence. "The sender then waits for receiver ...


1

The correct thing would be to monitor this switch, so you would know how much these users consume today.   If you think about expanding this network in this location, I believe that you should think about a switch with SFP+, at first you can use the 1Gbps Ethernet port, if necessary change to SFP+, that way the equipment will serve you for a good time. ...


1

The octet statistics count L2, not L1, so do not include preamble, start of frame delimiter and inter frame gaps, totaling 20B per packet on the wire. Port utilization of course looks at L1. If you add 20B per packet you'll see the calculations are correct. So basically use 8*(octets+packets*20)/capacity instead of 8*octets/capacity.


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