You can set bgp dampening for an AS path, which accomplishes the same thing. For example, if your neighbor is AS 1234, you can do something like this:
ip as-path access-list 1 permit ^1234
route-map damp_me permit 10
match as-path 1
router bgp 65000
bgp dampening route-map damp_me
Important Note (edited):
Route dampening recommendations have gone through ...
Routes received via eBGP and advertised to iBGP neighbors preserve original next hop information. To change that use the next-hop-self command when peering iBGP boundary routers with other iBGP routers, or add 10.1.12.0/30 into IGP.
Your additional questions:
when I in iBGP router R3 announce network 18.104.22.168 32, whether means
the R3-iBGP learned the 22.214.171.124/32?
You are announcing 126.96.36.199, so yes it's in the BGP table.
if R1 want to access the 10.1.34.4/24, so I need to announce
10.1.34.0/24 in R2 rather than in R4 or R3, right?
No. Normally, you would advertise the network from all ...
Do you know about the iBGP rule? A route learned from iBGP cannot be passed via iBGP to another router in the same AS. That is to prevent routing loops, and why you should use an IGP inside an AS. Routes learned via eBGP can be passed via iBGP with no problem, but routes learned via iBGP cannot.
For example R3 learning about the R4 loopback via iBGP cannot ...
A larger number of peers basically means that the ISP is better connected - more efficient and possibly more redundant.
However, the pure figure doesn't tell you everything. It's also about the quality of those peerings (bandwidth, redundancy, capabilities and size of peer/carrier, ...).
It is possible to originate one prefix from multiple different ASN. This used to be very rare, and I think the primary reason for that is:
some IRR databases, like RADB, didn't support having the same prefix published with two different origin: <ASN>
your announcement would show up in The CIDR Report as suspicious (probably not true anymore)