If using dual pair LC fiber to run 10GbE over a long distance, what's
the best way to connect it to a server on one end which has a
The best way is to get a server NIC with SFP+ slots so that you can get a 10 Gbps fiber transceiver to match your fiber.
Every connection introduces signal loss, albeit small. (at the distance you're talking, you could string together patch cables and still maintain enough signal for SR signaling.)
It's common practice to have some sort of "landing" at the edge of each building -- a telco room, patch box in a plenum, etc. That allows for termination of armored, ...
should I use a single fiber between two server rooms or split it into segments for easier maintenance/replacement?
Fiber doesn't require any maintenance. If you provide decent protection (duct, tube) it'll last forever. Always terminate fiber in a panel and use patch cables to connect equipment - an exposed cable is a vulnerable cable.
Only if more ...