I will try to answer these.
The technology I probably talked about is called "G.fast" and it is being standardized as I write this; most of the G.fast standard was passed last week.
G.fast is a hybrid fiber-copper system, or deep-fiber, that uses copper only for the last hundred meters or so. It will pump from some hundreds to say 2 Gb/s in future ...
In the U.S., and I assume world-wide, CableLabs is working on the DOCSIS 3.1 standard. This has a theoretical capacity of up to 10 Gbps over existing hardline coax plant. There are a lot of questions to be answered on deployment though, as far as how much the existing cable plant would have to be conditioned to run at QAM 4096. I worked on new plant that had ...
Technically, there's no copying to the various strands.
With PON, the splitter is a passive, unpowered unit that optically splits the downstream light into multiple, weaker rays. Each 1:2 split attenuates the signal by (at least) 3 dB. Up to 1:64 splits are common, depending on overall fiber length and power budget, up to 1:256 is possible. It's a bit like ...
0/100M Single mode WDM 20Km Tx1550nm/Rx1310nm
That's actually for the 100BASE-BX10 standard (-Downlink variant), boosted to 20 km. You can buy those SFP modules from some vendors. 100BASE-LX10 uses a pair of fibers, without WDM (or rather WDD). 100BASE-FX also uses a pair, but multi-mode fiber.
A more common 1000BASE-BX10-D module likely won't work because ...
Wireless solutions may well be cheaper for low-density deployments (rural, or "back country"), and perhaps under ideal circumstances faster (throughput- rather than latency-wise) than 100 Mbps legacy speeds over access fiber.
After a few tests, I found the solution and it's working. My first configuration was incomplete.
Here a working configuration :
! Isolated VLAN: Connects all CPE hosts to Switch
The general situation is normally called Local Loop Unbundling and is a significant legislative issue in lots of jurisdictions.
You might care to read https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local-loop_unbundling as a starting point, as the answers about how to deal with it vary enormously by country.
Ultimately I see three options.
Have re-patching facilities downstream of the splitters and re-patch customers onto a different splitter when they change provider.
Have the OLTs (and possibly the ONTs) managed by the infrastructure provider rather than the service providers.
Give up on PoN and just run direct fiber to each customer.
Each option has it's ...