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1 vote

Why is IPsec transport mode "vulnerable" for not having integrity of variable fields? Why is this so important?

In transport mode, only the payload is encrypted. The header is suspect to manipulation unless the authentication header (AH) option is used. AH protects against manipulating the immutable fields and ...
Zac67's user avatar
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1 vote
Accepted

Could address be omitted from packet in IPv4 if router is sending to / from that address?

A source IP address is always required in a transmitted packet, by specification. When Router1 receives a packet from A, it knows it's from A without having to look at the source IP address because ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
2 votes

In IPv4 Fragmentation, should the first block be necessarily the closest smaller multiple to 8

For IPv4, see RFC 791: To fragment a long internet datagram, an internet protocol module (for example, in a gateway), creates two new internet datagrams and copies the contents of the internet header ...
Zac67's user avatar
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6 votes
Accepted

In IPv4 Fragmentation, should the first block be necessarily the closest smaller multiple to 8

The Fragment Offset field is three bits smaller than the Total Length field. 2^3 = 8 That means that you must use a multiple of eight. Typically you will use the largest multiple of eight that fits ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
0 votes

How localhost and its opposite 0.0.0.0.0 works

Localhost usually points to 127.0.0.1 which is the first address of the virtual loopback interface (always connected, infinite bandwidth) with the subnet and address range 127.0.0.0/8. It means (only) ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k

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