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What should we do if the number of bytes to be transferred are not in multiples of eight in ipv4?

I think you've got a slight misunderstanding how fragmentation works. With an MTU of 576, the first fragment can carry 576 bytes of the original packet (that's a multiple of 8, all is well). Each ...
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What should we do if the number of bytes to be transferred are not in multiples of eight in ipv4?

The number of octets in an IPv4 packet need not be a multiple of eight. You are confusing a couple of things. The data size can be anywhere from 0 to 65,535 - <packet header size>. IPv4 has the ...
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Simple IPv6 Global Unicast question

Remember that four bits are used for each hexadecimal digit. 0010 and 0011 are the bits for the first hexadecimal digit in /3, and the correspond to 2 and 3 in hexadecimal. The first three bits are ...
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How is 65535 bytes is total length of IP datagram?

It is because the number in that field is the number of octets (bytes) for the entire packet. You could never have a number less than 20 because that is the minimum IPv4 header size. If he field has ...
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Simple IPv6 Global Unicast question

Left most 001 are fixed, this means the left most nibble can be: 0010 = 0x2 0011 = 0x3 The 4th left most bit is not fixed.
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How to use IP pool

You are given only one public IP address by your Internet service provider, ISP. This is common. Assign that public IP address to the Internet facing interface on your router/firewall and use Port ...
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How to use IP pool

103.15.xx.xx/30 can mean two different things: A subnet with four IP addresses, two of which usable, but one is used by the upstream router and one address is free for you to use. Likely, 103.15.xx....
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What are the IP/MAC addresses of requests between 2 different subnets?

MAC addresses are confined to the local network because routers strip the frame off a packet to route the packet to a new network interface. The router then builds a new frame for the protocol on the ...
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Why shortened version of IP4 exists and it is undocumented but supported everywhere?

Take a look at Textual Representation of IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses In particular: Meanwhile, a very popular implementation of IP networking went off in its own direction. 4.2BSD introduced a ...
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Why shortened version of IP4 exists and it is undocumented but supported everywhere?

Those variants are remnants from the classful networking era that ended in 1993. They allowed you to use the class prefix in combination with a single, host-specific number, but not limited to that. ...
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DHCP Discover Broadcast and its IP (255.255.255)

255.255.255.255 is the broadcast address for all subnets.
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Why in the TCP/IP model the link & physical are one?

The internet was a project to connect disparate networks into a coherent whole. It was neither necessary nor desirable for the architects of the internet to worry about how exactly those underlying ...
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Why there is only one hop in the tracert?

Verizon is caching websites locally in their central offices. Essentially making a copy of Google, Amazon, Facebook available in one hop.
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Why is this 254.63.0.1, not a valid host address?

240.0.0.0/4 is reserved by ARIN (SPECIAL-IPV4-FUTURE-USE-IANA-RESERVED). Likely, the switch is rejecting that address because it's part of the pre-1993 class E address range. Many hosts and devices ...
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Why the host part of a Mask is 254 (256-2) instead of 253?

Your question is unclear, but if you ask "why can we have 254 hosts in a /24 network" then: the all zero is also an address, so while it add ups to 255 as you said, it doesn't start from 1 ...
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Why the host part of a Mask is 254 (256-2) instead of 253?

Decimal 255 is 1111 1111 in binary. Since the host part in an IPv4 address must not be all 1s (that address is used for the subnet's directed broadcast address), addresses like that cannot be used ...
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2 votes

Why the host part of a Mask is 254 (256-2) instead of 253?

Because you have 256 different values: 0 to 255. The same thing for the number of decimal digits. There are 10 digits (base 10) but they are 0 to 9. Since you have 256 different values in an octet (0 ...
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