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1

The /30 subnet mask provides the most efficient use of IP addresses by not wasting any IP addresses when it is applied to a point to point network connection.


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if host A needs to communicate with host B, host A needs to know host's B address. It may be not an MAC or IP address, but it needs to be some address. One common pattern is DNS, as described in other examples. Host B has a name. A network is running a service that allows to map host B's name to its current address. Important here is that (1) A has to know B'...


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Some application on one hosts needs to communicate with an application on another host. Either the IP address of that other host is configured in the application, or DNS is used to look up the IP address of a name (for example www.example.com is converted 192.0.2.123).


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Most often, hosts use DNS to get the IP address from the host name.


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If Router B is disconnected, the interface on Router A goes down because there is no connection. When an interface is down, it has no address, so the address is withdrawn from any routing tables. You could do something like put a switch between the routers. When Router B is disconnected, Router A would still have a connection on that interface, and the ...


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we also see that the fiber is only used till the networking device and not the client nodes like PC or laptop. That isn't really true. Technically, running fiber to the desktop isn't a problem. However, fiber cables are very delicate and deploying fiber when there's copper you can use is an expensive luxury. LAN cables made up of copper wires Technically, ...


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For hosts on one network to talk to another network, you require a gateway/router in between and the hosts to have (default) routes that point directly or indirectly to the remote network. You can have all hosts use their local router as default gateway, interconnect the routers and set up a static route on each router for the remote network. Alternatively, ...


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