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Importantly, you do not need to write software that runs on network-core devices, such as >routers or link-layer switches. Even if you wanted to write application software for these >network-core devices, you wouldn’t be able to do so." Even these lines are being blurred today. There are some companies with "software" routers and they ...


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Just to muddy the waters even further, the routing function ( forwarding packets) happens at layer 3. But many routing protocols, like BGP and RIP, run in the application layer. OSPF and EIGRP are applications too (sort of) but they don’t quite fit into OSI or TCPIP model.


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You should make a difference between router function and a router appliance. The router function is located in the network layer. A router receives packets and forwards them between networks based on their destination addresses, according to its routing table. A router appliance's main function is routing. Additionally, it may support all kinds of additional ...


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It is said that layer 3 devices such as routers do not have an application layer. No, routers route at layer-3, not the application layer, but that does not mean a router cannot have a user interface in the application layer. But whenever I want to configure my home router I punch in the IP address and open up its graphical user interface. Home networking ...


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