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1

The reason is that those uncoded bits already have very good quality (low BER). Leaving them uncoded can reduce the overhead introduced by FEC.


3

Technically, there's no copying to the various strands. With PON, the splitter is a passive, unpowered unit that optically splits the downstream light into multiple, weaker rays. Each 1:2 split attenuates the signal by (at least) 3 dB. Up to 1:64 splits are common, depending on overall fiber length and power budget, up to 1:256 is possible. It's a bit like ...


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