20

Both Daniel and John gave very good answers to your question; I'll just add some practical things that come to mind when I read the question. Keep in mind that much discussion about the security of MPLS VPNs comes by way of the trust normally afforded to Frame Relay and ATM VPNs. Is MPLS secure? Ultimately the question of security comes down to one unasked ...


9

I'm assuming you are talking about MPLS VPN. The MPLS VPN is more secure than a regular Internet connection, it's basically like a virtual leased line. However it runs no encryption. So it is free from eavesdropping unless someone misconfigures the VPN but if you carry sensitive traffic it should still be encrypted. This kind of VPN is not authenticated so ...


8

I had this issue. You did not indicate of you have a data center or not. Making the assumption that inter remote site traffic is manageable, in your data centers you allow prefixes to be advertied between the two SP clouds using your data centers as trasits. It is true that remote site to remote side will take the hop through your data centers but there is ...


7

This is a very common situation, which I've seen many times over the years. Regardless of whether you're turning down and replacing legacy Point-to-Point T1 circuits, integrating networks in an acquisition/merger, or just changing providers as in this question, the solution will almost always involve utilizing your existing network equipment/routing ...


6

is a unique label generated per Destination prefix in routing Table or is it per Next-hop in the routing table? ...i have seen customer scenarios approaching 1 million routes... But the MPLS doesn't have any common guidelines for label generation ? Is there not a common rule saying a unique label should be generated per Destination-prefix or per nexthop ? ...


6

I think your question is not truly correct. First of all, as explain here "an MPLS VPN is a VPN that is built on top of an MPLS network, usually from a service provider, to deliver connectivity between enterprise office locations. " The MPLS is the mechanism that directs data from one network node to the next, based on short path labels instead network ...


6

"VPN" in the most common definition doesn't necessarily imply security. The same goes for MPLS, and the two terms are often combined (see "MPLS VPN") because certain aspects of MPLS can provide similar functionality to a traditional VPN (AToMPLS, EoMPLS, TDMoMPLS, etc). It's entirely possible to run MPLS over an encrypted VPN tunnel, and to run encrypted ...


5

Since Cisco controls the EIGRP spec, they automatically provide additional information to BGP when EIGRP is advertised/redistributed into an MPLS VPN. This excerpt from Cisco's MPLS VPN support for EIGRP page gives the following details (emphasis mine): EIGRP Connectivity Between VPN Client Sites over a Service Provider Backbone In Figure 1, the EIGRP ...


5

Ron already mentioned this in the comments but let me try to offer a little more explanation. SD-WAN, from a vendor perspective, is offered as a solution which involve a set of technologies designed to simplify deployment and traffic management over WAN. It's a child of the "SDN" umbrella, and basically means you would have software doing a lot of ...


4

Yes, as you say backup links will cause an issue in the future unless you provider lets you run OPSF CE-PE and sets up some sham links. One workaround would be to use GRE tunnels between sites and run OSPF over the tunnels. The tunnel endpoints would need to be advertised through BGP. The OSPF routes would arrive over the tunnel. This does lower you MTU ...


4

MPLS support is only rarely a requirement for enterprise equipment, especially relatively simple setups like the one you describe. MPLS itself is usually hidden away in the carrier networks. For your situation you basically you have two options : you can ask a network carrier to provide a private VPN service, which will typically be MPLS based. In much of ...


4

Putting myself in a customer perspective, with presumption that customer has solid technical competence. If you have multiple offices, you should confirm that L2VPN product you're offered is multipoint, any-to-any solution, like VPLS. Then ask how many MAC addresses can be in each sites, how are bcast/mcast/unknown unicast limited. If there are no ...


4

BGP only selects one path to put into the routing table. It sounds like your MPLS is actually working as you planned. You have the primary site in the routing table. When it goes down, BGP will insert the backup site into the routing table. If you type show route protocol bgp at a remote site, you should see both routes in the BGP table.


4

What's the maximum amount of MPLS VPNs a router can provide? Short answer: "it depends". To be honest, it sounds like you're getting in way over your head, but I'll answer the question as best I can. Long answer: Sam said... I would still be specifically interested in how service providers handle the separation of different customer's MPLS VPN. Why ...


4

When traffic arrives into a PE router from a customer the interface that it arrives on is associated with a VRF. The router will only lookup the destination in the VRF routing table for the associated VRF. If the interface is associated with VRF A, the router will only be able to see the 172.0.2.5 that exists within VRF A. If the interface is associated ...


4

This is a very broad question and you need to do some more background reading, but quick answers to your questions: L2 MPLS VPN – forwards based on the L2 address of the L2 PDU. The L2 PDU is encapsulated in the transport protocol (MPLS). The VPN can provide point-to-point (AToM) or LAN type multipoint service (VPLS). Something to remember about these ...


4

As @ronmaupin suggests, you are talking about two different things. Routing protocols exchange routing information so that routers can populate their routing tables. They have nothing to do with the actual routing (forwarding) of data. WAN technologies (I'll include MPLS for the sake of argument) are simply logical and/or physical connections between ...


3

Why there is a need for again source MAC and destination MAC addresses? The original source and destination MAC addresses have no meaning while the packet is in the tunnel. My understanding is that it uses MPLS labeling for switching/routing within the core network. Once it moves out from the PE, it will go to its attachment circuit based on the ...


3

The exact practical scenario when labels might run out is debatable. There are some house-keeping issues also which are not directly related to labels running out but contribute to that effect. Label managers today in major vendors (CSCO, JNPR at least) are programmed so that they need continuous block per label application. Of course this could be fixed, ...


3

L3VPN has to have their PE (label edge routes) configured with RD, route-target import/export in particular VRFs. That's only for purpose of control plane. To make it clear, let me make brief explanation of RD and route-target. route distinguisher (RD) is used in order discern which prefix belongs to which customer. As you probably know from your own ...


3

TL;DR Be very careful with that idea, unless you know EXACTLY what you are doing. Longer: A) Adresses are in VRFs It will cause no harm if these sets of loopback interfaces are on PE routers (or multi-vrf CEs) AND are part of different VRFs each (since were' talking about MPLS-VPN, here). In other words: IF each customer (VRF) gets their own set of ...


3

vlan 50 method of configuration consolidates all related statements onto the PE-CE logical interface. This is the easiest to understand if you are configuring manually or doing any kind of troubleshooting. Imagine each method as just fragments within a large router config. In that context, it's suddenly quite clear which option makes most sense.


3

There are several different ways to accomplish this. Here's one way, assuming you're already running MP-BGP: In the ISP VRF, have separate route tags for import and export, say 100 and 200 respectively. The VRF exports the default route with RT 200. Each customer VRF imports 200, and exports its address block with RT 100. In this way, the ISP VRF sees ...


2

Unless you are going to lay your own cabling and connect the sites together, you will need to speak to a service provider to connect these two up. Usually the WAN connection will be managed by the provider with a guaranteed SLA which will be included in the service contract. Anything connected to the service provider equipment on the customer side, will be ...


2

The first six octets are the destination address. Your example has the broadcast destination address. The next six bytes are the source address. In your example: 0824:F5CE:D3AC. The next sequence of bytes can be confusing. If the next two bytes are 8100 you have a four-byte 802.1Q VLAN tag. Otherwise, the two bytes represent the EtherType or length. if the ...


2

Edit based on the provided bug link: This is obviously a bug. The workaround is given, and I think you need to use the tunnel interface as prescribed in the workaround until there is a code fix. We don't have magic solutions to a code bug. See the text I highlighted from the bug report on the last line below: Symptom: Packet forwarding succeeds between ...


2

I think you are confused. In an MPLS VPN the layer 2 or layer 3 traffic being carried over an Label Switched Path is not encapsulated - MPLS does not provide an encapsulation method - it is a transport method. MPLS labels are inserted (usually) above say an the Ethernet header and below the IP header, and it provides a transport mechanism across a packet ...


2

For ingress traffic into your CE/BO devices, you are correct - your markings are largely pointless, as ingress traffic is serviced on a first-come/first-serve basis and congestion will be already in play by that point. It should be possible for your provider to enforce egress prioritisation between their PE interface and each of your CEs to give your voice ...


2

Since you have enabled OSPF on the connected interface, it will be an internal route for the networks behind the CE1. But all OSPF routes on the CE1 side will be external routes on the CE2 side, because they all are redistributed to/from mBGP. To make them internal, you need a sham link. Administrative distance doesn't really come into play here. AD ...


2

All I can do is explain how a pretty successful large network does it. Each of the hundreds to thousands of end-sites on an MPLS VPN is in the same private BGP AS, so site-to-site traffic is switched directly by the carrier MPLS cloud. The data centers each have their own private BGP ASes. So, the WAN is a mixture of iBGP and eBGP. Each end-site and data ...


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