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4 votes

Why is MPLS label added between layer 2 header and layer 3 header of OSI model and not between headers of layer 3 and 4 of OSI model?

MPLS is a layer-2 protocol. However, no layer-1 carries MPLS directly, so it gets tacked on to various other layer-2 protocols. (hence "layer-2.5") Adding it after a layer-3 header would ...
Ricky's user avatar
  • 32.1k
2 votes

How can GMPLS unify signalization plain of all telecommunications network technologies?

The idea of GMPLS is that it's hardware and media agnostic. Optical networks are just one kind of media that GMPLS can be used on.
Ron Trunk's user avatar
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1 vote

Recognizing the next protocol in MPLS header

How can I know what is the next protocol in MPLS header? You can't. MPLS doesn't carry a 'next-protocol' header. It doesn't have to. MPLS is used to carry a certain type of payload, commonly either ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 83.9k
1 vote

In what situations is MPLS label erased from the top of the label stack in MPLS?

MPLS label is erased from the top of the label stack upon MPLS tunnel termination. Sometimes, to save an additional MPLS table lookup on PE routers, a PHP(Penultimate Hop Popping) mechanism is ...
manish ma's user avatar
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