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In the real world, each data-link protocol has its own method to determine if it has received a full frame. For example, ethernet has the inter-packet gap and the FCS. If a frame fails the FCS (damaged frame, too small, too large, etc.), it drops the frame. If everything passes, it sends the frame payload to the process indicated by the Ether Type field, e.g....


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One of the characteristics of layers (in any model) is abstraction. Layering abstracts the information as data "moves" up the layers. In your case of HTTP, the layers abstract all the networking, fragmentation, validation, etc. into a data stream. To your application, all it knows is it's getting a stream of data. How that data arrives is ...


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I come here from the assumption that wireless communication is just electromagnetic waves, which a network card should be able to decode. Well, depends on the card. If you're thinking of taking two computers with regular wired LAN ports (1000BASE-T / Gigabit Ethernet, or what have you), then no, it doesn't really work like that. The physics of sending a ...


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Without getting into the physics of it, yes, it's all electromagnetic waves, but unless you use certain frequencies, they don't radiate very far. We have network adapters that are designed for this -- we call them WiFi network adapters. What You're probably using one right now on your phone or laptop. You can use any medium you like -- cables, radio, light,...


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You can connect two computers with an Ethernet cable and they will communicate (just may have to assign IP addresses manually), or you can have two wireless capable devices communicate if they're in wifi range (this is called an ad-hoc network). The communication will still probably happen using TCP/IP protocol stack, since this is what most OS's support. ...


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layer 2 protocols use MAC addresses for communication, which doesn't really depend on what network you're in or if you're in a network at all. Oh yes, it does. A data link layer (L2) network is required for communication, with an underlying physical layer network (L1: interfaces, ports, cabling) as well. The L2 network doesn't necessarily need to use MAC ...


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