27

A /31 network actually has two usable hosts for a point-to-point link. See the Standards Track RFC 3021, Using 31-Bit Prefixes on IPv4 Point-to-Point Links (published in December 2000): Abstract With ever-increasing pressure to conserve IP address space on the Internet, it makes sense to consider where relatively minor changes can be made to fielded ...


12

I have a few /30 subnets connecting OSPF routers over a broadcast capable link.. Should I also configure the interfaces involved in the link to ip ospf network point-to-point? Or does it matter? The network type definitely matters, but you need to be sharp about handling this situation... there are some corner cases to consider. Let's compare the ...


8

Unless the media converter you've bought are specifically marketed as T1 Fiber Extender/Converter, it won't work. T1 isn't Ethernet even if it's using RJ-45. Regular media converter are for Copper Ethernet to Fiber Ethernet, not T1 signals A quick google search with "t1 fiber copper converter" will yield various manufacturers that are making the bona fide ...


6

Almost all consumer Internet access links use only a single IP address and many business links as well. A single IP address can't be shared directly but extremely commonly (source) NAT is used. A modem per se can't be shared but when a connection is dialed up by a router and then NATted, the connection can be shared just like xDSL, fiber or anything else. ...


6

Initially, Ethernet was based on broadcasting physical layer technology (bus network for 10BASE5/10BASE2 or with repeaters), but logically (layer 2), the protocol has always been MAC-based many-to-many - initially only by filtering on each NIC. Modern networks don't use the broadcasting approach any more (for the past 15+ years) but MAC-based packet ...


5

Ethernet was developed to be used as a broadcasting protocol and technology. That is incorrect. Ethernet was developed for a shared access media -- originally, a physical bus that ran throughout the office, and every host connected to the bus. It could be either unicast, multicast, or broadcast. Modern networks use switches instead of a bus, but ...


4

I think you are confused with the terms Point to Point and TR-069 here. An ISP normally uses IPOE/PPPOE/PPPOA for establishing the connectivity between CPE(Modem/Gateway) and their BRAS. They also use their own radius server to authenticate the PPP connection for obvious reasons. TR-069 is a mechanism to provision a Gateway/Modem with the respective plan(...


3

Zac (alluded to the I/G bit) and Ron (pointed out that shared medium and broadcast are different things) have given you a couple of perspectives, and I will give you to another perspective by contrasting the switched ethernet broadcast protocol with the switched frame relay non-broadcast protocol. Both ethernet and frame relay can be switched. Ethernet has ...


3

In the 1980s, most of the dial-up connections I saw were UUCP, not IP. Our server would call the various other servers and exchange mail and files. In this way it most certainly was for more than one user. By the early 1990s, I saw a lot of corporate networks where there was a dial-up modem making a conventional IP link, with mostly sendmail SMTP traffic ...


3

What you are seeing is the neighbor Router ID and interface IP address. This is explained in the RFC on pages 12 and 13, particularly the point-to-point link of figure 1a: **FROM** * |RT1|RT2| +---+Ia +---+ * ------------ |RT1|---...


3

Today this would likely be done by laying a fibre from your office back to a nearby PoP and from the DC to a PoP near the DC. Then most providers would create a L2 VPN (such as an MPLS pseudowire) between the PoPs across the service providers network between PoPs. It wouldn’t actually be a dedicated fibre from end-to-end. The two main exceptions are if the ...


3

End to End mean communication Between Two devices or application. It Simply if you are calling to your friend via Skype it is end to end communication. It does not care about what is in the middle. P2P mean Point to Point Link- It is layer 2 Connectivity between two devices. It can Use PPP or HDLC Protocol.


2

With your current design it's not going to be a huge difference. However, assuming that you would have the same management VLAN for the entire network and spanning lots of switches, the point to point links would be better for the following reasons: Smaller L2 domain size No bridging loop possible Easier troubleshooting Because the layer 2 domain would be ...


2

There are actually a few things for you to weigh up with this question. Use point-to-point if: Rapid failure detection and convergence is important to you. Convergence: The lack of a DR/BDR election will speed convergence Failure-detection: Couple OSPF network point-to-point network type with BFD to for fast detection of a link-failure. You could ...


2

Idea 1: ASCII See this question on SE for using ASCII control characters Idea 2 That article on HLDC gave me this simple idea which uses one byte for start delimiting, one for end delimiting, and one for escaping data within the packet: Start byte: 0x00 (8-bit hex notation) Escape byte: 0x01 End byte: 0x02 So a packet will always start with 0x00 and end ...


2

The computer connected to the modem would start one PPP (or earlier, SLIP) session, and it would get one IP address from the ISP. So yes, one connection for every dial-up connection. There were methods to "share" this with other computers on the same LAN (similar to what we do with Hotspots today). Of course the speeds would be so low that more than one ...


2

When providers lay fiber they don't just lay one fiber. Over land and on short underwater hops they lay a large bundle because fiber is cheap. Transoceanic fibers need integrated optical amplifiers which reduces the practical fiber count. Your long distance link will run mostly over existing infrastructure with possiblly a small ammount of new fiber for the ...


2

Simply put: don't NAT. NAT is required when connecting private-to-public or public-to-private. Since you're connecting private-to-private, NAT is uncalled for. With ping working, your routing is working. If nothing else is working your ACLs filter out desired traffic. Check ACL statistics or use packet capturing to see where the filtering is happening.


2

Static routes on each router will allow both sites to reach each other's resources. Unfortunately, you can't "combine" or "load balance" your Internet connections.


2

Would it be possible to take the signal from a passive parabolic/helical WiFi antenna (2.4g) on the hill between to the two buildings, amplify it if needed, and send it with a directional antenna to the other building, which would also have an outdoor directional antenna? To clarify, parabolic antennas and many helical antennas are directional in nature. ...


2

Think of point-to-point as one straw. Two ends of one straw are P2P connections. And end-to-end as 100 different straws connected to each other forming one very large straw. Two ends of the very long straw are end-to-end connections.


2

Do you think you're referring to an IPSEC Child Security Association (SA)? It's described by the specifications as a child and even has some related notification types. To expand, Child SAs are created for policy-based IPSEC VPNs as a result of how they are implemented by routers. If you have the following configuration for a tunnel, two Child SAs are ...


1

In common case balancing of two ISP is possible, but there many depends on... One TCP (and in most cases other protocols) connection absolutely impossible to balance Because of IP security on some sites one client must not change IP (at least on the go), so for flawless Internet you must lock HTTP of one client to one ISP. Is possible to overcome this ...


1

Is there a way to use a cisco 2800 router to create a point-point tunnel to a Palo alto 3020 firewall Yes, IPsec is generally supported. You'll need to find a common parameter set though. with support for 6 vlan's on the cisco side. Simply route into and out of the tunnel and use firewall rules to permit what you need and deny what you don't, e.g. '...


1

In general, you'll be better off with the network-per-site arrangement. The routers are responsible for getting it to where it should go They can block/throttle/log as appropriate when things go wrong Very little change if you add another internet link Very little change to structure if you add another site Much easier to add redundant links Much easier to ...


1

Most of time, the terms point to point or point to multipoint refer to logical topology, not physical topology. One can configure P2P or P2MP on various type of media, and the ability to use broadcasts depends on the type of media you have. Ethernet is usually considered a broadcast media, where every station can hear every other station, but modern ...


1

How to implement backup link to switch via Internet VPN. That is your question. It seems like you could nail up a LAN-to-LAN VPN to get connectivity to the remote switch (via a VPN capable networking device). Then you could bridge across it (IRB, or just bridging?). Then the problem is: now you have a layer2 ring, aka loop. So, you will have to ...


1

PPP is a layer 2 protocol, and like most layer 2 protocols, it is usually dependent on the physical media. The Wikipedia article you quote lists the kinds of media normally used with PPP. In other words, you choose the L2 protocol based on the communications media, not on who you're trying to communicate with.


1

When you discuss a point-to-point link, you are usually referring to a physical link that exists only between two devices. A point-to-point transmission is a transmission from one device to a single other device. This may or may not cross point-to-point links, but that is not a requirement. A unicast is essentially the same idea in that it means the ...


1

As others have said you can't use IPs that are already in use. You should use a separate subnet that you can route through (to the other network). I would suggest using something larger than a /30 block (in case you ever add additional locations) -- a /29 would allow you to expand to 6 locations for example. I would use something separate from your ...


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