3 votes
Accepted

what is the purpose of GRE in UDP encapsulation if its unidirectional

The use case is passing flow hashes from the overlay network to the underlay network. Higher level protocols generally don't like to have their packets reordered, it makes stream reassembly and ...
Peter Green's user avatar
  • 13.3k
3 votes
Accepted

Address Field In PPP Protocol

As you have guessed the PPP address field was defined by RFC 1662 and has no function. It must be all ones according to the RFC or it should be silently discarded. Address Field The ...
Mike Pennington's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

How PoE interacts LLDP and LLDP-MED?

PoE power allocation can happen on the physical layer by signature resistance, or on the data link layer by LLDP TLV (PD→PSE). Which one takes precedence is a matter of configuration in your switches/...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 83.9k
2 votes

How can GMPLS unify signalization plain of all telecommunications network technologies?

The idea of GMPLS is that it's hardware and media agnostic. Optical networks are just one kind of media that GMPLS can be used on.
Ron Trunk's user avatar
  • 67.3k
2 votes

what is the purpose of GRE in UDP encapsulation if its unidirectional

I was going through this feature of GRE called GRE-in-UDP encapsulation. The RFC says it is unidirectional and the tunnel traffic is not expected to be returned back to the UDP source port values used ...
Mike Pennington's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Does PPP do broadcasting?

If it's PPP, there's no "broadcast" per-se... PPP is all unicast between two interface endpoints.
Mike Pennington's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

On what basis does a router actually install GRE headers and remove them?

if the tunnel is only established on one side, the receiving router does not remove the GRE header. Established means the tunnel is 'up' on both its end. If one side encapsulates but there's no ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 83.9k
1 vote

Recognizing the next protocol in MPLS header

How can I know what is the next protocol in MPLS header? You can't. MPLS doesn't carry a 'next-protocol' header. It doesn't have to. MPLS is used to carry a certain type of payload, commonly either ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 83.9k

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