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1

VRRP, and other FHRPs, really should be deterministic, but there are other services that have no need to be so deterministic. For services that must be deterministic, then protocols can be created to provide that, but building something into the network protocol for services that do not have that need simplifies things because we do not need add-on protocols ...


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Desktop or laptop or server or any other endpoint connecting to network through wireless or wired intiàtes DHCP discover message to DHCP server within data segment layer in osi model with destination Mac address as FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF Frame with this DISCOVER message after reaches the DHCP Server . After the DHCP Server gets discover message from client ...


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The DHCP server may be present outside your network and thus we need to broadcast on Network layer as well. The server responds with either a broadcast or a unicast message using UDP source port number 67 and destination port number 68. The response can be unicast because the server knows the IP address of the client. It also knows the physical address of ...


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And MSS is one of the parameters which is negotiated during the 3-way handshaking. No, the value is not negotiated, it is simply sent by one or both sides. Technically, do both sides need to agree on an MSS value (the lower value), or each can use their own? No, the sides do not need to agree, and each can have its own MSS. What a particular ...


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