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How to route in this situation? Routing happens the same way as a regular area with multiple ABRs advertising the same prefix. Routers install the routes with the lowest metrics in the routing table. Remember that routing protocols do not route, they are used to exchange routing information, and each router makes its own decision on what gets installed in ...


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Q1: Even if it is not carrying data, the SYN segment is consumming one byte in the sequence numbers, because the SYN flag must be acked by peer. That's why the server replies with an ACK of 8001 and the next client segment sequence number is 8001. Q2: The FIN Flag must also be acked (so +1 in server reply) and means "I'm done with sending data". That's why ...


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I think the part you are missing is that the acknowledgement number is the number of the data expected next. A segment with an ACK says I acknowledge everything before this acknowledgement number, and the next data I expect will start with this acknowledgement number as its sequence number. In the first diagram, there is no acknowledgement number in the ...


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BGP Peers start in Idle state. In Idle state, the peers have been configured to form an adjacency with one another other, but have not yet initiated or received any communication. BGP uses TCP as it's transport. So for there to be a BGP adjacency, the first step is to establish a TCP connection. While both peers are in IDLE state, they will each ...


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TCP creates a connection between two peers, and BGP uses TCP. One TCP peer will try to connect to the other TCP peer, and this is the connect state. One peer may listen for a connection (especially after a failed connection attempt on its part), and this is the active state. BGP has several states, and each is clearly documented in RFC 4271, A Border ...


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A port is a transport address for some transport protocols (TCP and UDP), much like addresses for network or data-link addresses. Also, understand that TCP and UDP use the same port number range, but they are not the same ports; TCP port 12345 is not UDP port 12345. An application will request of TCP or UDP to get a connection with the transport protocol, ...


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