I don't have that book, but I suspect what he's getting at is is that, while the average arrival rate may equal the maximum transmission rate, there can be fluctuations in the arrival rate. When the arrival rate fluctuates above the transmission rate, the queue fills up (assuming it doesn't drop packets). When the arrival rate fluctuates below the max ...
Yes, most often. It depends on how exactly your ISP connects your IP addresses into their network.
Usually, you're given a subnet where one IP address is used by their router - e.g. 192.0.2.32/28 with the router on .33, and .34 through .46 for you to use. You can then connect a firewall and map those addresses into your network, but you can just as well ...
192.168.1.0/24 via 192.168.3.2
That's why. Router 2 uses 192.168.3.2 as a gateway to 192.168.1.0/24, including 192.168.1.2. The router doesn't know (nor care) that there's no gateway behind that IP address.
Instead, Router 2's gateway towards 192.168.1.0/24 needs to point to Router 1's IP address on Gig9/0.
Router 1 requires routes to networks #2-#4 (and ...
Very obviously, when the ingress rate exceeds the egress rate (that "traffic intensity" exceeds 1) you've got exactly two options:
queue the data (with the hope to catch up when the ingress rate slows down again)
drop the data (and have someone else clean up the mess)
Neither method is the always-right solution.
You can't queue indefinitely (...
WAPs send beacon frames to the STAs, and the STAs can send probe frames. This is all part of the 802.11 standard used by Wi-Fi.
Remember that the protocols you are referring to are layer-3 or above protocols, but 802.11 defines the physical (layer-1) and data-link (layer-2) protocols.
On some devices, a routed L3 interface may require less hardware resources (from TCAM) than a VLAN plus SVI.
A routed port can enable you to re-use the same VLAN ID from another L3 port or from an L2 VLAN without any risk of L2 traffic in between.
A routed port may be easier to manage by an admin, especially with ECMP or similar (no need to twiddle with MSTP ...