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Have you already accounted for MTU issues? Often, an IPSEC or other tunnel over the public Internet will result in a path MTU of e.g. ~1420 bytes to destinations across the tunnel. If your hosts are all configured for 1500 bytes MTU they can usually work out the lower path MTU in the absence of ICMP filtering, but it's also frequent that folks block the ...


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Option 3 is your only real choice. You are limited by physics. As you probably know, you are running into delay-bandwidth product limitations, so Option 1 --increasing your connection speed won't help. Option 2 is great news for Juniper, but it will make absolutely no difference in performance. You might consider adjusting the maximum TCP window size ...


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The DPC3828S is a (residential) router with an integrated modem, you can't use it in bridge mode. It won't get any faster if you double-NAT on another router. So, your only option for speed up is to get it out of the way, using another router and modem. Switching is generally done in hardware and (nowadays) works at wire speed. Routing is also often done ...


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As per your configuration, you haven't mentioned the VRF INTERNET in your LAN interface. interface GigabitEthernet8.92 encapsulation dot1Q 92 ip address 192.168.92.1 255.255.255.0 ip nat inside ip virtual-reassembly in However, As 50.220.76.153 is in VRF and not in global table, your non-VRF static route is not valid. That's why it's not ...


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Routers do forwarding and routing. Routing is "outside" of the router (i.e., RIP, OSPF, etc.) Forwarding, in routers, is taking the IP datagram/packet from the input port (after it is received and processed) and look up occurs with the forwarding table to determine which output port it needs to go to.


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The diagram in your question does not show any use of NAT, so it's not too good a choice. If we assume that R2 is using source NAT/NAPT, and R7 is using destination NAT aka port forwarding, then Alice addresses the packet to Bob's public router R7. Bob's private address is unknown to Alice and useless. R2 substitutes (one of) its public IP address for Alice'...


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It is difficult to understand from the photo the type of NAT or PAT that is occurring in the scenario. Which makes it difficult to answer your question exactly. There are four types of translations: Static NAT, Static PAT, Dynamic PAT, Dynamic NAT. Of those four, Dynamic PAT is uni-directional. Meaning connections will only flow through the translation ...


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You need to remember that ping is bidirectional. You send out an ICMP echo request, and you hope to get back an ICMP echo reply. That means that the replying device must also have a route back to the original sender. You did not include the R3 routing table, but it would seem that R3 does not have a route back to the source of the ICMP echo request. It is ...


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I cannot copy and paste your mistake because you used an image instead of text. Your VoIP DHCP pool has the network as 192.168.100.0/24, but the gateway is on a different network, 192.168.10.0/24. That will not work. The gateway must be on the same network as the hosts, otherwise the hosts need a gateway to reach the gateway, and it simply does not work ...


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Yes a link-local address can be and often is used as a gateway address. The purpose served by a gateway address depends on the underlying network type. On some network types (generally point to point ones) the gateway address is ignored, on others (generally multi-point ones) the gateway address is resolved to a L2 address to allow the packet to be sent to ...


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RFC 4291, IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture explains Link-Local addressing: 2.5.6. Link-Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses Link-Local addresses are for use on a single link. Link-Local addresses have the following format: | 10 | | bits | 54 bits | 64 bits | +----------+-------------------------+----------...


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From my understanding of your comment: I'm trying to do split tunneling, I want a list of ranges not being routed through the tunnel, so I need a list of routes that doesn't match with these ranges. you really don't need this list. Routing works primarily by selecting the more specific route first. So in a split tunneling scheme: you have a ...


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Thanks for your post so I can earn some points finally :) I'm doing this right today about PulseSecure stuff and why you could not do it yet after Zac67 almost correct answer is becuase there was some missing piece yet. Well, interfaces are having their seed metric which adds up with that of routes to yield a final value. So you must artificially change ...


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You need to add a specific route to 10.8.0.0/16 via your default gateway. Currently, the default isn't used because of the more specific 10.0.0.0/8 route. The routing logic selects the most specific route (longest prefix) for each destination. /8 is longer than the /0 default, so 10.8.x.y would use the former.


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There are at least three design principles like Separation of concerns, principle of least knowledge, single responsibility that make NAT focus on only translation and NOT try to be a security feature also. Users need to combine NAT and ACL to make sure they configure the desired functionality. If functionality from other features creep in to NAT, it may ...


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There are (at least) two main reasons: The assumption is that you control the "inside" network. So, presumably, you're not doing the spoofing. Not every device needs to be NATted. You might have some devices that use addresses that don't need translation.


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No. As BGP is a distance vector protocol all we are able to tell is which neighbour we have received the withdraw message from.


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Many routers do not route a packet back out of the interface it was received. They may require explicit configuration to do that. Routing "backwards" is inefficient since those packets need to cross a subnet multiple times. Your scenario isn't very practical since most often, you'd have a single router taking care of all routing into and out of a subnet. ...


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