7

As Ron Trunk pointed out, LACP uses a special multicast OUI on its frames. Your unmanaged switch does not recognize the OUI, only that it is multicast, and it sends the multicast frames to every other switch interface. LACP frames are sent with the special 01:80:c2:00:00:02 multicast MAC address. The IEEE has reserved the 01:80:c2 OUI for link protocols, and ...


7

The frame rate of the cameras will determine the data rate. If the data rate is between 32 Kbps and 16 Mbps, the bandwidth for 16 cameras is between 256 Kbps and 128 Mbps. We can't tell you if that is acceptable or not -- it depends on whatever else you have on that switch. At the low end of the range, that bandwidth used isn't significant. At the high ...


6

A layer-2 switch does not look at the layer-3 IP address on a packet to switch the layer-2 frames, and it only uses the MAC addresses on the frames for switching. The layer-3 interface on the switch is for switch management. It is like another host on the LAN, and it will not update its ARP table unless it communicates with a host at layer-3. Switches use a ...


5

How do I route the lacpdu packets through the unmanaged switch and make the etherchannel work? Etherchannel, LACP or a static LAG trunk can't work across an unmanaged switch ever. As both Rons have suggested you need either: a managed switch with an Etherchannel or an LACP trunk to each of the other switches a managed switch w/o LACP filtering (non-...


5

Generally you need a router to route between the subnets. One common configuration is to have one router interface with two IP addresses on it in two different subnets (Cisco calls the second one a “secondary IP”). Here are some cases where that is useful: You originally allocated a /24 to the subnet but now have more than 254 hosts during peak times. ...


5

They can if they know the other subnet is "on the wire" with them. This is where "interface" routes come in. (how to do this is OS specific...) For example (linux box): 199.XXX.XXX.0/28 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link 10.0.0.0/24 via 199.XXX.XXX.2 dev eth0 192.168.1.0/24 dev eth0 scope link The first is created by the kernel when an address is assigned ...


5

You are confusing layer-2 and layer-3. Routing happens at layer-3, and bridging happens at layer-2. Routing routes packets between networks, and it usually finds the best path between networks. Layer-3 packets also have a TTL that gets decremented as a router processes the packets, and the packet is discarded when the TTL hits 0. Bridging bridges frames on ...


5

The default VLAN and the native VLAN are really two different concepts that are often mixed up because they are often the same VLAN, but they may not need to be. VLAN 1 is the default VLAN (meaning not configuring a VLAN on a switch interface will leave it in VLAN 1). The bad guys know that it exists on your network, unless you take steps to remove it or ...


4

Ethernet has always used packet switching. Packet switching works by multiplexing a physical connection on a packet basis. Each packet (or frame on the data link layer) is atomic but consecutive frames can come from or go to completely different sources or destinations (MAC addresses). The essential distinction of a packet-switched network is that each ...


4

You probably can't with a single switch. LACP frames are multicast, so the unmanaged switch will flood them out all ports. This will cause several problems: The sending switch will see its frame received on its other port. The switch will interpret this as a loop and refuse to aggregate the link. The receiving switch will see the same packet on both ...


4

I had a query in Clock Synchronization in a LAN.. If we already have clock synchronization in a network with the help of preamble field in an Ethernet frame. You're confusing clock and time. The preamble of an Ethernet packet consists of a 56-bit (seven-byte) pattern of alternating 1 and 0 bits, allowing devices on the network to easily synchronize ...


4

You can check the MAC address table on the switch to see on what port you learned the MAC address of the Fortigate's management interface. It should be possible to enable LLDP on the Fortinet as of FortiOS 5.2 as well according to their documentation: config system interface edit <name> set lldp-transmission enable end end You can enable ...


4

Yes. You don’t even need a trunk. If all ports on both switches are access ports on Vlan 3, then the port connecting the two switches are on Vlan 3 and both switches form one broadcast domain on that Vlan. If switches are unmanaged then all ports would be on the one Vlan and the number is irrelevant. A couple helpful details: Access ports to end hosts or ...


4

The access VLAN is what is used for devices, such as PCs, connecting to the switch interface. VoIP phones can use CDP (or possibly LLDP, depending on the model and switch configuration) to negotiate a trunk with the switch interface, and the phone will use the VoIP VLAN for itself. If you connect a different device to the phone, the phone will act as a ...


4

Traditionally with Switching, there are two types of ports: Access Ports -- ports which carry traffic for only one VLAN Trunk Ports -- ports which carry traffic for multiple VLANs In a scenario where a user has their PC plugged into the wall. You would typically configure the switchport that user is connected to as an Access Port: Switch(config)# vlan 22 ...


4

You might want to consider SFP modules/transceivers integrated into the switches instead of unmanaged converters - SFP modules in managed switches are much better to monitor and troubleshoot. In your diagram, you connect the converters to the switches using multi-mode fiber. If those switches have SFP slots, just use single-mode transceivers instead and ...


3

I've solved the issue! It appears there were inconsistencies in the FIB table of the Nexus 7700 if you run this command, this will show any inconsistencies, which included my host IP test forwarding ipv4 inconsistency then run clear forwarding ipv4 route 10.x.135.71 this command will populate the route again into the FIB table. After the route appeared ...


3

You dont assign Ip addresses to hubs, hubs only "forwards" the frames received to the rest of the ports, switches can have an ip addess if you either want to manage it and be able to log in to by ssh or telnet, if you define a vlan on them, or if it is a layer 3 switch and you want it to do routing, exists a concept of svi( switch virtual interface) , I ...


3

Hubs and repeaters are layer-1 devices, basically powered cables, that have no addressing. Bridges and switches work at layer-2, and they do not need network addressing to function. Unmanaged bridges or switches do not have network addresses. Managed bridges or switches may have network addresses in order to connect to them for management, but those ...


3

TDM is a circuit-switched network, where the circuit (path) is set up at the beginning, and it is up until it is torn down. It does not vary, and no other devices can use that circuit until it is freed. Traffic put in one end of the circuit comes out at the other end of the circuit. TDM frames are always put in one end of the circuit and sent to the other ...


3

Redundant L2 links are usually implemented using some form of spanning-tree protocol - all but one are blocked. Having active L2 links requires some kind of MC-LAG which is proprietary due to the lack of an open standed or Shortest Path Bridging (802.1aq) which hasn't really caught on yet in the industry. Using redundant L3 links enables active links (using ...


3

Input vs output port are from the (low) perspective of the switch's hardware architecture - each physical port on the switch consists of an input port and an output port (or rather circuitry). The author makes the point that the input and output aspects are very different things and they need to be dealt with in different ways in the hardware. Practically, ...


3

Without VLANs, connected switches form a single broadcast domain - that is exactly what you need for an IP subnet. Just connect away. VLANs allow you to split (partition) a shared switched infrastructure into distinct broadcast domains - ideally suited for multiple IP subnets. In order to connect multiple VLANs across a single link you'd need a trunk, ...


3

16 Cameras at 4MP resolution, running at 15 fps gives the following: MJPEG (medium): 941 Mbps H.264 (base): 63.7 Mbps H.265 HEVC (medium: 25.6 Mbps Also remember that even if you're doing motion-only recording, the cameras will constantly be sending a stream to the recording NVR. Also, any live monitors will duplicate the bandwidth from the NVR to the ...


2

The core function of a router is forwarding based on the network layer (L3). This is done on its forwarding plane. A router usually has some higher-layer functionality located in its control plane: SSH/Telnet console, web interface, RIP/OSPF/BGP route exchange, ... All these use transport-layer (L4) and application-layer (L7) protocols but that doesn't make ...


2

There are multiple reasons. Some of the main reasons are: Layer-2 (spanning tree) picks a single path to a root bridge in order to prevent layer-2 loops. Layer-3 (routing) paths are all active and can be configured to balance traffic across multiple links. Layer-2 (spanning tree) failover is much slower than layer-3 (routing) failover. Layer-2 problems ...


2

I see two things wrong: Your firewall is misconfigured. The inside interface has the wrong mask. VLAN 2040 is /21, but you've configured it as a /24. The orange PC has the wrong gateway. According to your diagram, the SVI for VLAN 2040 is 172.16.40.254, not 172.16.40.1.


2

So datagram switching is when packets from same original message travel different paths from source to destination. No. Different packets may take different paths, but usually they don't. The point is that packet switching forwards packets solely based on their destination address, a decision repeated for each packet and independent of any previous packets. ...


2

On switch 2, the client ports are on VLAN 100 and 200 (not 10 and 20). EDITED to include Marc Luethi's comment: On ESW2, the switchports where R1, R2, R3 are connected are without spanning-tree portfast. That will leave these switchports in LIS/LRN spanning tree state for at least 30 seconds after they get 'line protocol up'. That might be long ...


2

How can I stop spanning tree from flapping the camera port(s)? You did what you can already and STP isn't the problem. I 11/06/19 07:40:33 00076 ports: port 7 is now on-line I 11/06/19 07:40:33 00435 ports: port 7 is Blocked by STP This state change is caused by STP - the port isn't online right away, only when STP has determined it's not causing a loop (...


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