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TCP (also other transport protocols) choose the PDU size when the datagram is sent. After that, it is up to the network protocol, and the transport protocol is not involved until the datagram is received by the transport protocol at the destination, where it is presented to the application. IPv4 can fragment network packets in the path, but that is now ...


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what is the algorithm to resegment an incoming TCP/UDP packet? That is not a thing. You can fragment the encapsulating IP packet if an MTU decrease within the path doesn't allow its current size, that's it. To avoid this problem you can use path MTU discovery (pMTUd) - mandatory for IPv6 and recommended for IPv4 as well - or MSS clamping for TCP. For UDP, ...


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