Under the hood, all virtualization systems, including docker, use the same mechanism: they use a software switch on the host. Such a switch can be called a "virtual switch" (but this is a bit grey since you now have hardware switches that use a linux kernel and the exact same software to run).
All modern OSes have a built-in, basic, software switch that the virtualization software can take advantage of.
More advanced features can be added to this basic switch implementation, the most common being OpenVSwitch.
Those software switches work exactly the same way hardware switches run, and can handle VLAN, bonding (static or LACP), (x)STP, VxLAN, NetFlow, etc...
By default, desktop virtualization software like VMware Workstation/Fusion or VirtualBox will also perform NAT to use the host IP address for the virtual machine, but you can also configure them for pure bridging (bridge = switch).
So the correct term to refer those networks is either
software switch or