12

Seems clear to me that the Link Local, and Unique Local, addresses should at least be filtered.

  1. Is there anything other than LLA/ULA that should be filtered?

  2. For LLA, is it standard practice to blanket filter the full fe80::/10, or just filter the fe80::/64?

12

RFC 6890 section 2.2.3 describe special purpose prefixes for IPv6. Link is here:

http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6890#page-14

Prefixes to include are:

               +----------------------+------------------+
               | Attribute            | Value            |
               +----------------------+------------------+
               | Address Block        | ::1/128          |
               | Name                 | Loopback Address |
               | RFC                  | [RFC4291]        |
               | Allocation Date      | February 2006    |
               | Termination Date     | N/A              |
               | Source               | False            |
               | Destination          | False            |
               | Forwardable          | False            |
               | Global               | False            |
               | Reserved-by-Protocol | True             |
               +----------------------+------------------+

                    Table 17: Loopback Address

             +----------------------+---------------------+
             | Attribute            | Value               |
             +----------------------+---------------------+
             | Address Block        | ::/128              |
             | Name                 | Unspecified Address |
             | RFC                  | [RFC4291]           |
             | Allocation Date      | February 2006       |
             | Termination Date     | N/A                 |
             | Source               | True                |
             | Destination          | False               |
             | Forwardable          | False               |
             | Global               | False               |
             | Reserved-by-Protocol | True                |
             +----------------------+---------------------+

                   Table 18: Unspecified Address

            +----------------------+---------------------+
            | Attribute            | Value               |
            +----------------------+---------------------+
            | Address Block        | 64:ff9b::/96        |
            | Name                 | IPv4-IPv6 Translat. |
            | RFC                  | [RFC6052]           |
            | Allocation Date      | October 2010        |
            | Termination Date     | N/A                 |
            | Source               | True                |
            | Destination          | True                |
            | Forwardable          | True                |
            | Global               | True                |
            | Reserved-by-Protocol | False               |
            +----------------------+---------------------+

              Table 19: IPv4-IPv6 Translation Address

             +----------------------+---------------------+
             | Attribute            | Value               |
             +----------------------+---------------------+
             | Address Block        | ::ffff:0:0/96       |
             | Name                 | IPv4-mapped Address |
             | RFC                  | [RFC4291]           |
             | Allocation Date      | February 2006       |
             | Termination Date     | N/A                 |
             | Source               | False               |
             | Destination          | False               |
             | Forwardable          | False               |
             | Global               | False               |
             | Reserved-by-Protocol | True                |
             +----------------------+---------------------+

                   Table 20: IPv4-Mapped Address

          +----------------------+----------------------------+
          | Attribute            | Value                      |
          +----------------------+----------------------------+
          | Address Block        | 100::/64                   |
          | Name                 | Discard-Only Address Block |
          | RFC                  | [RFC6666]                  |
          | Allocation Date      | June 2012                  |
          | Termination Date     | N/A                        |
          | Source               | True                       |
          | Destination          | True                       |
          | Forwardable          | True                       |
          | Global               | False                      |
          | Reserved-by-Protocol | False                      |
          +----------------------+----------------------------+

                   Table 21: Discard-Only Prefix

          +----------------------+---------------------------+
          | Attribute            | Value                     |
          +----------------------+---------------------------+
          | Address Block        | 2001::/23                 |
          | Name                 | IETF Protocol Assignments |
          | RFC                  | [RFC2928]                 |
          | Allocation Date      | September 2000            |
          | Termination Date     | N/A                       |
          | Source               | False[1]                  |
          | Destination          | False[1]                  |
          | Forwardable          | False[1]                  |
          | Global               | False[1]                  |
          | Reserved-by-Protocol | False                     |
          +----------------------+---------------------------+

         [1] Unless allowed by a more specific allocation.

                +----------------------+----------------+
                | Attribute            | Value          |
                +----------------------+----------------+
                | Address Block        | 2001::/32      |
                | Name                 | TEREDO         |
                | RFC                  | [RFC4380]      |
                | Allocation Date      | January 2006   |
                | Termination Date     | N/A            |
                | Source               | True           |
                | Destination          | True           |
                | Forwardable          | True           |
                | Global               | False          |
                | Reserved-by-Protocol | False          |
                +----------------------+----------------+

                         Table 23: TEREDO

                +----------------------+----------------+
                | Attribute            | Value          |
                +----------------------+----------------+
                | Address Block        | 2001:2::/48    |
                | Name                 | Benchmarking   |
                | RFC                  | [RFC5180]      |
                | Allocation Date      | April 2008     |
                | Termination Date     | N/A            |
                | Source               | True           |
                | Destination          | True           |
                | Forwardable          | True           |
                | Global               | False          |
                | Reserved-by-Protocol | False          |
                +----------------------+----------------+

                      Table 24: Benchmarking

                +----------------------+---------------+
                | Attribute            | Value         |
                +----------------------+---------------+
                | Address Block        | 2001:db8::/32 |
                | Name                 | Documentation |
                | RFC                  | [RFC3849]     |
                | Allocation Date      | July 2004     |
                | Termination Date     | N/A           |
                | Source               | False         |
                | Destination          | False         |
                | Forwardable          | False         |
                | Global               | False         |
                | Reserved-by-Protocol | False         |
                +----------------------+---------------+

                      Table 25: Documentation

                 +----------------------+--------------+
                 | Attribute            | Value        |
                 +----------------------+--------------+
                 | Address Block        | 2001:10::/28 |
                 | Name                 | ORCHID       |
                 | RFC                  | [RFC4843]    |
                 | Allocation Date      | March 2007   |
                 | Termination Date     | March 2014   |
                 | Source               | False        |
                 | Destination          | False        |
                 | Forwardable          | False        |
                 | Global               | False        |
                 | Reserved-by-Protocol | False        |
                 +----------------------+--------------+

                         Table 26: ORCHID

                +----------------------+---------------+
                | Attribute            | Value         |
                +----------------------+---------------+
                | Address Block        | 2002::/16 [2] |
                | Name                 | 6to4          |
                | RFC                  | [RFC3056]     |
                | Allocation Date      | February 2001 |
                | Termination Date     | N/A           |
                | Source               | True          |
                | Destination          | True          |
                | Forwardable          | True          |
                | Global               | N/A [2]       |
                | Reserved-by-Protocol | False         |
                +----------------------+---------------+

                  [2] See [RFC3056] for details.

                          Table 27: 6to4

                 +----------------------+--------------+
                 | Attribute            | Value        |
                 +----------------------+--------------+
                 | Address Block        | fc00::/7     |
                 | Name                 | Unique-Local |
                 | RFC                  | [RFC4193]    |
                 | Allocation Date      | October 2005 |
                 | Termination Date     | N/A          |
                 | Source               | True         |
                 | Destination          | True         |
                 | Forwardable          | True         |
                 | Global               | False        |
                 | Reserved-by-Protocol | False        |
                 +----------------------+--------------+

                      Table 28: Unique-Local

            +----------------------+-----------------------+
            | Attribute            | Value                 |
            +----------------------+-----------------------+
            | Address Block        | fe80::/10             |
            | Name                 | Linked-Scoped Unicast |
            | RFC                  | [RFC4291]             |
            | Allocation Date      | February 2006         |
            | Termination Date     | N/A                   |
            | Source               | True                  |
            | Destination          | True                  |
            | Forwardable          | False                 |
            | Global               | False                 |
            | Reserved-by-Protocol | True                  |
            +----------------------+-----------------------+

                      Table 29: Linked-Scoped Unicast

This should be enough. There is also the option of filtering bogons but that feels a bit overkill unless you setup peering to Team Cymru or such.

  • I disagree that all special purpose addresses "Should Never be routed" or that they should "at least be filtered". For example, there are some of those that are flagged "Forwardable" and "Global", particularly 64:ff9b::/96 for NAT64. – zevlag May 16 '13 at 3:21
  • Obviously if you are using any of these prefixes then you should not filter them. Maybe you are using Teredo etc but the default stance should be to filter them unless you are running NAT or tunneling. – Daniel Dib May 16 '13 at 4:07
  • 2
    Why would you want to filter 2002::/16? That would stop anyone who's using 6to4 as a transition mechanism from communicating with you. – Paul Gear Jul 20 '13 at 21:12
6

There are three options you can go.

The first one, and most accurate one, is to setup peering with Team Cymru, as SimonJGreen explains. You have the advantage of having the most accurate list, the disadvantage of maintaining the peering, the policy-statements/route-maps etc.

The second route, would be to deny the prefixes that "you should never see in the wild", such as the link-local prefix, the old 6Bone 3FFE::/16 prefix etc and combine that with the prefixes you should see. See below for an example. The advantage is that this is the easiest config, the disadvantage is that it isn't as accurate as the first option.

The third route, which you should never implement, is to take the current ipv6 bogon list, as published by Team Cymru, and paste that as static filters in your config. This is what a lot of people did with ipv4 a few years ago, and leads to a lot of suffering today... Do not this this option. Ever.

As an example, here is a decent list of ipv6 prefixes to allow and prefixes to deny:

ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 5 deny 3ffe::/16 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 10 deny 2001:db8::/32 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 15 permit 2001::/32 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 20 deny 2001::/32 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 25 permit 2002::/16 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 30 deny 2002::/16 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 35 deny ::/8 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 40 deny fe00::/9 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 45 deny ff00::/8 le 128 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 50 permit 2000::/3 le 48 
ipv6 prefix-list in-filter-v6 seq 55 deny ::/0 le 128 
4

See the IPv6 Fullbogons list at http://www.team-cymru.org/Services/Bogons/http.html

This is available through DNS, RADB, RIPE or BGP as well if you want to perform automatic filtering.

Here's an example of filtering automatically on Cisco:

router bgp <your asn>
 ! Session 1
 neighbor A.B.C.D remote-as 65332
 neighbor A.B.C.D description <your description>
 neighbor A.B.C.D ebgp-multihop 255
 neighbor A.B.C.D password <your password>
 ! Session 2
 neighbor E.F.G.H remote-as 65332
 neighbor E.F.G.H description <your description>
 neighbor E.F.G.H ebgp-multihop 255
 neighbor E.F.G.H password <your password>
!
 address-family ipv4
  ! Session 1
  neighbor A.B.C.D activate
  neighbor A.B.C.D soft-reconfiguration inbound
  neighbor A.B.C.D prefix-list cymru-out-v4 out
  neighbor A.B.C.D route-map CYMRUBOGONS-V4 in
  ! Session 2
  neighbor E.F.G.H activate
  neighbor E.F.G.H soft-reconfiguration inbound
  neighbor E.F.G.H prefix-list cymru-out-v4 out
  neighbor E.F.G.H route-map CYMRUBOGONS-V4 in
!
 address-family ipv6
  ! Session 1
  neighbor A.B.C.D activate
  neighbor A.B.C.D soft-reconfiguration inbound
  neighbor A.B.C.D prefix-list cymru-out-v6 out
  neighbor A.B.C.D route-map CYMRUBOGONS-V6 in
  ! Session 2
  neighbor E.F.G.H activate
  neighbor E.F.G.H soft-reconfiguration inbound
  neighbor E.F.G.H prefix-list cymru-out-v6 out
  neighbor E.F.G.H route-map CYMRUBOGONS-V6 in
!
! Depending on IOS version, you may need to configure your router
! for new-style community syntax.
ip bgp-community new-format
!
ip community-list 100 permit 65332:888
!
ip route 192.0.2.1 255.255.255.255 Null0
!
ip prefix-list cymru-out-v4 seq 5 deny 0.0.0.0/0 le 32
!
ipv6 route 2001:DB8:0:DEAD:BEEF::1/128 Null0
!
ipv6 prefix-list cymru-out-v6 seq 5 deny ::/0 le 128
!
route-map CYMRUBOGONS-V6 permit 10
description IPv6 Filter bogons learned from cymru.com bogon route-servers
match community 100
set ipv6 next-hop 2001:DB8:0:DEAD:BEEF::1
!
route-map CYMRUBOGONS-V4 permit 10
description IPv4 Filter bogons learned from cymru.com bogon route-servers
match community 100
set ip next-hop 192.0.2.1

And here's one for JunOS:

/*
* Define BGP peer group
*/
delete protocols bgp group cymru-bogons
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons type external
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons description "cymru fullbogon bgp feed (ipv4 + 6)"
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons multihop ttl 255
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons import cymru-bogons-in
/*
* Define MD5 password in quotes
*/
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons authentication-key "<YOUR PASSWORD>"
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons export deny-all
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons peer-as 65332
/*
* Replace values below as appropriate
*/
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons neighbor A.B.C.D local-address <YOUR IP>
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons neighbor A.B.C.D family inet unicast
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons neighbor A.B.C.D family inet6 unicast
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons neighbor E.F.G.H local-address <YOUR IP>
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons neighbor E.F.G.H family inet unicast
set protocols bgp group cymru-bogons neighbor E.F.G.H family inet6 unicast
/*
* Define CYMRU import policy
*/
delete policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 1 from family inet
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 1 from community comm-cymru-bogon
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 1 then community add no-export
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 1 then next-hop discard
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 1 then accept
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 2 from family inet6
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 2 from community comm-cymru-bogon
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 2 then community add no-export
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 2 then next-hop discard
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in term 2 then accept
set policy-options policy-statement cymru-bogons-in then reject
/*
* Define deny-all export policy
*/
delete policy-options policy-statement deny-all
set policy-options policy-statement deny-all then reject
/*
* Define CYMRU Bogon community
*/
delete policy-options community comm-cymru-bogon
set policy-options community comm-cymru-bogon members no-export
set policy-options community comm-cymru-bogon members 65332:888
/*
* Define internal no-export community
*/
delete policy-options community comm-no-export
set policy-options community comm-no-export members no-export
2

This IPv6 filtering recommendation is a bit dated, but still has the fundamentals right I think: http://www.space.net/~gert/RIPE/ipv6-filters.html

0

if you want to do a "deep" filtering you can have a look at the team cymru templates and bogons project:

http://www.team-cymru.org/ipv6-router-reference.html

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