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I am trying to understand how Data (video, image, ...) is sent over the network, and what are the protocols and different processes involved. We know that OSPF (L3 protocol) does not use TCP or UDP, also, the FTP (File transfer Protocol - Application layer) uses the TCP to guarantee the efficiency of the transmission (resend the lost packets).

Now, I get confused, my question:

"After building the routing tables (using OSPF protocol for example), is TCP/UDP used for sending a file (like image, audio, video) from a server to a user ?"

I need clarifications.

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  • OSPF has its own transport protocol, which is protocol number 89 (TCP is protocol number 6, UDP is protocol number 17, EIGRP is protocol number 88, etc.). See the IANA Protocol Numbers page. OSPF and BGP have their own transport protocols, RIP uses UDP, and BGP uses TCP. Routing protocols only exchange routing information between routers, and the routers may or may not use that information to build their routing tables, depending on the router configurations.
    – Ron Maupin
    Jan 9 at 13:33

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After building the routing tables (using OSPF protocol for example), is TCP/UDP used for sending a file (like image, audio, video) from a server to a user ?"

Routing protocols are used only by routers to exchange route information between them.

In other words, routing protocols do not route data.

They ARE NOT used by PCs and servers.

In reality, hosts (PCs and servers) are unaware of all the routers that may be along the path, and whether they use OSPF, BGP, or something else. TCP/UDP works the same whether the hosts are connected with a piece of wire or twenty routers between them.

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  • Thank you @Ron. That question has been asked because I didn't know when & where TCP and OSPF headers are added in IP packet. So according to my understanding, the following packet | IP header | OSPF header | OSPF payload | is used exclusively between routers to exchange information about the network topology; whereas this type of packet | IP header | TCP header | TCP payload | is used by hosts (PCs and servers) and it carries Data (videos, images, etc) transmitted over the network. Am I right or wrong ?
    – Lee
    Jan 9 at 14:47
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    That is correct. The second is used between hosts regardless whether there are routers in the network or not.
    – Ron Trunk
    Jan 9 at 15:40

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