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13

I can see two possible explanations: Your WAN address is your public address, but you are yourself using something that makes it look like you are accessing the internet somewhere else. One example is a proxy server which uses the 182-address to access the internet. A website telling you what your public IP is would see the 182 address. Often these sites ...


10

This sounds like some form of "bufferbloat", probably on the part of the DSLAM/LNS that's performing the 6Mb rate limiting. It might be your CPE box, but that's a little less likely.


9

I would verify where the latency is occurring. Use a tool such as MTR which checks the latency at each hop. MTR combines ping statistics for each hop with a trace route, and can greatly help narrow down this type of problem. On a linux box the command would be mtr 8.8.8.8, there is also a windows version of this tool. The output will show you where the ...


8

Originally, WANs were mostly defined by specific layer 1/2 protocols (Frame Relay, HDLC, SONET, etc) that they used, but Ethernet has taken over, and the others are rapidly fading into history. The term "WAN" now generally describes a network that covers some larger geographical area than a LAN. Sounds vague? It is. Some WANs, like the Internet are public,...


7

If you are using the same provider for your primary and backup MPLS connections, it is almost a certainty that they are the same network. Even if you were to use a different technology for your backup links (e.g, frame relay), the provider would likely provision that over their MPLS network. I know you want a simple answer, but your question is pretty ...


7

The terms do get thrown about quite a bit and the definition is a bit of a murky issue as they can be used in several ways. I would say that generally a leased line is a line you are paying someone else for use. For instance, you can string your own copper and establish your own T1/T3 service between buildings. However, you could also pay someone to ...


7

IP packets are encapsulated in a layer 2 protocol, whether they are sent on a LAN or WAN. Frame relay is one such WAN layer 2 protocol. There are others, but most are being rapidly replaced by Ethernet. On LANs, of course, you have Ethernet and Wi-fi. MPLS doesn't quite fit into the TCP/IP or OSI model. Some consider it a "layer 2.5" protocol.


6

As long as both interfaces have public IP addresses, which it sounds like, you have two options: 1) IP SLA: outbound traffic will only use one interface at a time. Essentially, you configure a static default route out the primary interface, which is tracked and a static default route out the secondary interface. If the tracking finds an issue, the tracked ...


6

There are many things that can cause low SNR. If you put aside natural reasons such as attenuation caused by distance, most of the time problem lies in bad infrastructure. Bad cables (damaged shielding and exposed wires), ingress noise, crosstalk, impedance mismatches, bad connectors and micro-reflections, bad splitters and filters and stuff like that. It ...


6

Wikipedia is your friend: LAN: A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that user interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media. In simple words, what unifies devices on one LAN: they are situated in the same area. Most commonly, one LAN is behind one router (not ...


6

I know that in the data link layer that is responsible ensuring that frames has been transmitted successfully by sending acknowledgement That is incorrect. There are very few data-link protocols that do this. The transport protocol is normally where acknowledgement takes place, but not all transport protocols do that. TCP does, but UDP does not. With a ...


6

An internet (lower-case "i") is a network of networks. The Internet (upper-case "I") is the largest internet (network of networks). The networks comprising the Internet connect to each other by agreement of the network owners (companies) using BGP as the routing protocol. IP stands for Internet Protocol. Layer 3 of the OSI model (IP) is the lowest layer ...


5

Fundamentally, loss of signal and/or increase in noise. If your SNR is always low and has always been low, it may simply be near the distance limit. Then again, it could be that it's always run over a lousy chunk of cable or bad splice. A few years back I had two ADSL circuits to campus, which took different routes - one significantly longer. Both cost the ...


5

You are probably better off with not using NAT for the server. I don't know how to configure the Draytek, but your Juniper SRX is certainly able to do the following: Your WAN address of the router/firewall is 213.x.x.254/30 The default gateway of the router/firewall is 213.x.x.253 Telenet will route 82.x.x.16/29 to 213.x.x.254. From the /29 subnet you will ...


5

Starting with IOS 12.4(4)T NBAR can be used to classify skype traffic. You could use a class map to mark skype traffic, something like this: class−map match−any skype_traffic match protocol skype Then use that class-map with PBR instead of the ACL matching the skype servers IP Addresses.


5

In Windows you could use Policy Based QoS to set DSCP matching on the application name (applied through group policy) edit: document refers to Server 2008 but the feature seems to available on Windows 7 Desktop as well


5

Check the DSL line statistics. (interleaved vs. fastpath, error counters, etc.) The test at a different location tested a different line, maybe on a different DSLAM. This suggests the ISP infrastructure isn't to blame. It strongly suggests your DSL line is at fault. Possibly the DSLAM itself is congested, but it's highly unlikely for you to be the one to ...


5

Very briefly, SONET/SDH is a high bandwidth optical WAN technology. T-carrier is an electrical (digital) WAN technology. SONET/SDH is (was) typically used for backbone and inter-provider circuits. T-carrier is (was) used for lower bandwidth leased lines for subscribers. SONET bandwidth typically starts at around 150Mb and goes up to 10Gb. T-carrier ...


5

Routers route packets between networks. Routers could have all LAN connections, all WAN connections, or some combination. It doesn't matter, each router interface needs an address in the network connected to that interface. Because routers route packets between networks, each router interface is in a different network. The terms "WAN" (Wide Area Network) ...


5

IPv4 doesn't know anything about public or private IP addresses. To IPv4, they are all IP addresses that can be treated the same. ISPs have agreed not to route packets with addresses in the private IPv4 ranges (and other ranges, too) between each other. Your packets destined to the public Internet will have public addressing on the source of the packets, and ...


5

Trivial? I'm not so sure. You'd have to ask many people at many service providers (and in turn their service providers, and then their (dark or lit) fibre providers and then their cabling companies) about many many details, most of which they won't, can't or must not make public. You might be able to get some high-level diagrams (as in: a powerpointable ...


5

SONET is a physical layer protocol (layer-1). You need a datalink layer protocol (layer-2) to handle framing. That was originally ATM, because that was one of the dominant L2's used by carrier networks. (vs. frame relay, ATM easily mixes voice and data.) IP (layer-3) "directly" over SONET still needs framing. Packet-over-SONET (POS) uses PPP (...


4

They are not in my view strict well defined terms. Generally people mean T/E, SDH/SONET as leased line, but DSL not. When customers in RFQ request leased line from us, I interpret it as they feel DSL quality is inferior to 'legacy' solutions, and specifically want us to avoid using it. While technically there is no difference in the physical copper we ...


4

I’m trying to understand what you’re asking, and based on how you described the network setup, there isn’t any good reason to use private addressing; even if you need to use separate network for other functions. The link you provided in the comments advertises that it handle multiple subnets. I would start with setting your Draytek Vigor up as a DHCP ...


4

Dedicated means not a shared medium. Dedicated Line @ Wikipedia Leased means just that... you're leasing the line which could be using a shared services such as a MPLS VPN (or Frame Relay in the old days). Leased Line @ Wikipedia A serial line is a type of interface using running HDLC or PPP. I wouldn't put this in the same category as dedicated or ...


4

There is no 'technical' difference. Traditionally they used quite different networking technologies although that is becominging less and less the case. The vague distinctions are that a LAN is in one local area, with lower latency, always connected, generally controlled by a single body, a WAN is spread over a distance and expected to have higher latency ...


4

Does my default WAN port need to connect to a WAN port? No, you don’t need to. WAN, in this sense, is just blocking inbound requests by default. I’ll assume the reason you’re using pfSense is to perform routing functions between those 2 networks (?). If you aren’t using it for any real firewall functions, then you would be alright to, technically, just ...


4

One option is to connect both switches together and create two vlans that span across both switches. Connect the routers and the WAN side of the FW to VLAN 1. Connect the LAN side and the servers to VLAN 2. If you run HSRP on the routers, that is your default gatewway for the firewall. Here is a logical diagram. Let me know if you need help configuring ...


4

@PHLiGHT, hello there! your cisco 861, imho, has overloaded by ingress traffic. Lets look on your cisco iface counters: 5 minute output rate 198000 bits/sec, 56 packets/sec 157099395 packets input, 3610517494 bytes Received 1 broadcasts, 76 runts, 0 giants, 655 throttles 338 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 149 overrun, 189 ignored you have 655 ...


4

Here is a decent explanation from DrPeering.net of the cost per bit-mile(meter). The Simple Bit-Mile Costing model tries to establish a network component price per bit mile. This calculation might take all route segments and calculate the average cost per mile. The end result would be a $/bit mile cost number. Then gross traffic analysis would be ...


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