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12

EDIT: I forgot to mention this - if you're interested, there have been books written about this topic. I highly recommend Bill Norton's The Internet Peering Playbook. Available in print or digital copies - it's pretty much the de facto text on this kind of stuff. DISCLAIMER: The examples used here are hypothetical only - I have zero insight into the ...


9

You can certainly do this with Wireshark. In the menu choose Statistics > Endpoints and you will see a window like this: You might need to copy and paste into Excel to sum the bytes per AS, or use some awk/python one-liner. If the columns marked AS Number and AS Organization are blank throughout, you need to configure the database for looking these up. ...


7

Who pays for traffic when it transits multiple providers? Ultimately, you do. John Jensen did a fantastic job explaining how this works overall, but I suspect a diagram could help. I will borrow the example providers he used. Let's assume you have a web server colo'd in an HE.net facility; assume you pay HE.net $500/month for a 100Mbps co-colocation. All ...


5

Mostly, the packets get dropped. Some packets may get buffered in queues, but the queues aren't very big. Policing is probably what the hotel uses, and policing is simply dropping traffic in excess of the allowed bandwidth. With TCP (HTTP runs on TCP), the TCP will react to lost packets and slow down, shrinking the window size. Even with queuing, you ...


5

The main reason for putting your equipment in another company's data centre is to take advantage of all the infrastructure: power, cooling, networking, physical security. Secondarily it can be advantageous if it's near something it has to communicate with a lot, such as web servers near database servers and web servers close to customers. The trade-offs ...


4

There are generally two reasons to use BGP with your ISP: You have more than one connection to your ISP(s), and you want to influence which path your traffic takes. You have your own provider independent, registered block of IP addresses, which needs to be advertised. For most organizations with a single connection to the Internet, there is no reason or ...


3

The thing is that you have an MPLS network in the middle of your traceroute. Actually results from traceroute are not really accurate when it comes to MPLS environment. What happens is that all ICMP TTL exceeded messages originated by a P device first have to be tunneled to the other edge using the original label stack before being sent back to the ...


3

As waza-ari pointed out, AS Prepend will do the trick. As to whether it's what other ISPs do, I cannot answer that question unfortunately. I labbed up your AS prepend query using the topology below: AS Prepend Example: R1 is advertising 192.168.1.0/24 through BGP. It is prepending 123, 123, 123 to the route. The below output was taken from R2: R2(...


3

Peering Points are just points where two autonmous networks connect to each other, like at an Internet Exchange, but not limited to only public internet. BGP speakers are the actual devices that can participate in BGP. This includes routers which are carrying traffic, as well as route reflector servers which help ease BGP peering or are used for information ...


2

Your Org can create a RADB entry for your customer prefix (since LOA is given, that should be mentioned in the "remarks" column of RADB) under your maintainer object. When your ISPs query RADB now, they will find a match of the prefix against your ASN and allow the prefix.


2

There are two possible approaches to peers finding each other in the network: Broadcasting or multicasting: generally only works within a local subnet/L2 segment unless special forwarding services are provided - won't work. Using a mediator: each peer registers with some service (a directory, DNS server or similar) and they look each other up - this is ...


2

"the BGP session is already up" Between which peers? We might need some more information here. On the other hand, it will all depend on how the network admins built their network. You'll have to ask them, I'm afraid. I can think of these cases, and I'm certain that there's plenty more ways to do this: Same Subnet: --> ARP Alias If that server and its ...


2

Your question is very broad, and you're not providing many details (for example which documents you read or what your network topology and equipment used is), but I'll try to give you some pointers. First, implementing RPKI consists of two parts: 1. signing your prefixes so others can validate them 2. implementing RPKI validation on your network Signing ...


1

A larger number of peers basically means that the ISP is better connected - more efficient and possibly more redundant. However, the pure figure doesn't tell you everything. It's also about the quality of those peerings (bandwidth, redundancy, capabilities and size of peer/carrier, ...).


1

In the case of bittorrent DHT, there are anchor points. What you are describing is a classic bootstrap paradox. How do I find other nodes if I don't know any nodes in the network? You either have to be told one (eg. remember the peers you'd previously used, and hope at least one is still valid), or there has to be a static entry point (i.e. domain name, ...


1

the IPs that ISP gives to us is invalid and isn't reachable. That can't be true. When the public IP address is invalid you can't do anything with the connection. Many P2P networks use a directory server like you seem to describe to find each other. Often, destination NAT/reverse NAT/port forwarding is additionally required to connect to hosts behind a ...


1

If your home wap has vlan capability you can create two SSID's. Assign each SSID to a vlan. Then, assign ACLS (access control lists) to allow them to get to the Internet but block them from your addresses. Some home WAPs also have guest mode and features that don't let computers talk to other computers on the same network. To add... you can get a robust ...


1

The Internet is really just a bunch of networks connected together. Consumers and businesses connect to ISPs as customers. ISPs connect to other ISPs, either as customers of larger ISPs, or as peers at Internet Exchange Points (IXPs). At IXPs, ISPs can often peer with multiple other ISPs and CDNs, reducing costs by having a single location for connections, ...


1

There are so may different file systems because there are so many different OS vendors, each thinking it has the best solution, and some file systems are designed for specific purposes, such as being optimized for databases, which may not be a good fit for other things, such as video streaming. The various file transfer protocols come from changing needs. ...


1

When ISPs peer on e.g. an internet exchange then the internet exchange provides the addresses for the peering LANs. When ISPs set up a private interconnection then one of them provides the addresses. It doesn't matter which one.


1

--as-path-lookups is based on RADB IRR data, which may very well be incorrect/missing. traceroute/as_lookups.c in traceroute-2.1.0 Dmitry Butskoy /* Copyright (c) 2006, 2007 Dmitry Butskoy <buc@citadel.stu.neva.ru> License: GPL v2 or any later See COPYING for the status of this software....


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